A serious problem faces our society as the demand for clean water begins to exceed the available supply. Treating and reusing wastewater is becoming an acceptable solution to this problem. Engineers across the country are being challenged to deliver cost-effective wastewater treatment and reuse solutions that protect the public health. Many of the solutions being developed are novel approaches. In the absence of sewers, onsite wastewater treatment systems are being designed to allow high-water-usage facilities to reuse wastewater. The systems discharge to the subsurface, thereby replenishing dwindling groundwater supplies, and the system designs reuse treated wastewater to flush toilets.